The block is used to support work for punching and drifting where the hardy hole or pritchel hole of the anvil is not suitable.
This is best done on a heavy stand with open bottom. It is helpful to have a sand box under the stand to catch loose drifts and punches preventing damage to them.
Upsets, once started unsupported are more efficiently finished while supported in a suitable hole in the block. If a suitable sized hole is not available then a bolster plate can be used.
A set of bolster plates with fine increment holes with the minimum clearance (about 1/32) for the sizes is a fine swage block accessory that can also be used with the anvil.
Many fasteners have special shoulders, squares such as on carriage bolts, tapers for plow bolts and flat head screws, and cylindrical shoulders for various purposes. These are made with a smith-made tool, a bolster plate. Bolster plates are often made with a variety of heads for one sized shank.
When upsetting a place in the middle of a bar it is often difficult to support the bar. A heavy swage block resting on an anvil, heavy bench, floor or on a stand can useful for this purpose. In this case the block is only helping hold the work and is something to push against to keep the bar straight as it tried to bend at the upset.
For large mid-bar upsets or formed upsets a bolster with a hemispherical or conical depression can give better control.
Where the shape of the shoulder is suitable to the shape of the block the upset can be done directly against the block once it has been started.
6. Upsetting in Special Upsetting Hole:
The upsetting hole is a new feature suggested by Josh Greenwood in 1999 and used by John Newman on hisartist blacksmith block.
The upsetting hole prevents the bar from moving around while striking the cool end and the taper of the hole helps produce a well centered upset.
The primary purpose for the edge grooves is finish swaging while using a top swage. The alternative to a swage block is a dozen or more bottom swages to fit the anvil. The block is more economical and it does not suffer from shanks that do not fit when an anvil is replaced.
The standard grooves on a block can be used to forge half rounds, 90 and 60 triangles and half hexes. Special blocks often have octagons (for rifle barrels), half ovals and rectangular grooves.
It is helpful for this purpose to have large radiused edges on the starting side of the block.
Starting with round stock of the same cross sectional area as the finished shape requires the least work when making odd sections.
The holes are useful for supporting a bar while making a bend in round, square or rectangular bar.
A block securly attached to the bed or tailgate of a truck can be very useful in making field bends such as for adjusting a railing to fit.
A block resting on the ground can also be threaded onto a long bar and the leverage of the bar and the block together can be applied for the same purpose.
Bar can be hammered hot or cold in the larger external radii of a block. This is very handy for quick cold work in stock up to 1/2 (13mm).
Blocks with large radii were designed for wheelwrights to start bends in tires prior to going to a roll bender, dress welds and take kinks out of wheels. Any large curve can be dressed on these surfaces.
11. Edge bending sheet and thin plate.:
This is a task often done in a special block. Vs in larger swage blocks substitute for this purpose.
U shapes from sheet metal beads up to wood workers gouges and round stock tongs can be made within the range of the block. A handled or hand held fuller or a piece of round stock the proper size is used to form the shape in the groove.
Dishing can be performed over the holes in the block. The large holes that are almost useless for other purposes should have large smooth edge radii for dishing.
Modern smiths often make tools for doing this from sections of pipe welding them to a flange or a flange and shank to fit a hardy hole.
14. Dishing over Special Depressions:
One of the earliest uses of blocks was dishing of ladles and spoons. Larger depressions are useful for armours to make a helm. Most raising is started with a dishing operation but not too much as this thins the metal. Artist blacksmiths use these depressions for everything from the curvature of leaves to bodies of animals.
Large radii on the edges of the depression reduce maring or cutting of the work.
15. Substitute Hardy Hole or Stake Plate :
Many square shanked blacksmiths, armourers and tinsmiths tools will fit the square holes of an industrial swage block. Tapered shanks should only be used in blocks with tapered holes specifically made for them.
Using dogs the industrial swage block can substitute for a small weld platten for bending and supporting work.
16. Support for rounds and squares on edge :
When starting a chisel cut on the corner of a bar a swage block is very handy. The same applies for incising, stamping or splitting rounds that tend to roll away otherwise.
Hex grooves will also support rounds quite well for this purpose and tend to lock them in place if a proper fit.
17. Rivet Heading and Dressing Spheres :
Large and small blocks including artist blacksmith blocks and dapping blocks have various hemispherical depressions that can be used for a number of things. Support for rivet heading is a common task replacing a rivet set or used in conjunction with a rivet set. The same depression can be used to form or dress a forged rivet head.
Small hemispherical depressions for rivet heading can be added to existing blocks using a ball end mill the way they are formed in dapping blocks.
These instructions are for no particular block as most blocks do not have all the features used above on one block.